Although the Berlin Wall fell on November 9, 1989, marking the beginning of the end of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, it took a further 11 months for German reunification to formally take place.
On October 3, 1990, Eastern Germany, or the German Democratic Republic (GDR), ceased to exist, and five newly created states on its former territory joined the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).
East and West Berlin were reunited and became a full-fledged city-state within Germany. Berlin later became the capital of united Germany.
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