Trump impeachment: Giuliani assembles legal team over Ukraine investigation after weeks of rejection.

Donald Trump’s personal lawyer, Rudy Giuliani, said that he had assembled a legal team to represent him in the criminal investigation into his activities related to Ukraine, after weeks of being unable to find a lawyer willing to take him on as a client.

Mr Giuliani said on Twitter that he would be represented by three lawyers, including his long-time friend, Robert Costello.

The hires show how serious Mr Giuliani is treating the inquiry by federal prosecutors in Manhattan, who are investigating whether he violated lobbying laws in his efforts to dig up damaging information about Mr Trump’s rivals.

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“The evidence, when revealed fully, will show that this present farce is as much a frame-up and hoax as Russian collusion, maybe worse, and will prove the President is innocent,” Giuliani said on Twitter, just before naming his new lawyers.

The hires came after a week long search to find a lawyer who would represent Mr Giuliani, who rose to prominence as the US attorney for the Southern District of New York, the same office that is now investigating him.

Trump impeachment: Who's who in the Ukraine scandal

Show all 22

Donald Trump
The Whistleblower
The Second Whistleblower
Rudy Giuliani

Trump impeachment: Who's who in the Ukraine scandal

Donald Trump

1/22 Donald Trump

Accused of abusing his office by pressing the Ukrainian president in a July phone call to help dig up dirt on Joe Biden, who may be his Democratic rival in the 2020 election. He also believes that Hillary Clinton’s deleted emails - a key factor in the 2016 election - may be in Ukraine, although it is not clear why.

Reuters

The Whistleblower

2/22 The Whistleblower

Believed to be a CIA agent who spent time at the White House, his complaint was largely based on second and third-hand accounts from worried White House staff. Although this is not unusual for such complaints, Trump and his supporters have seized on it to imply that his information is not reliable. Expected to give evidence to Congress voluntarily and in secret.

Getty

The Second Whistleblower

3/22 The Second Whistleblower

The lawyer for the first intelligence whistleblower is also representing a second whistleblower regarding the President's actions. Attorney Mark Zaid said that he and other lawyers on his team are now representing the second person, who is said to work in the intelligence community and has first-hand knowledge that supports claims made by the first whistleblower and has spoken to the intelligence community's inspector general. The second whistleblower has not yet filed their own complaint, but does not need to to be considered an official whistleblower.

Getty

Rudy Giuliani

4/22 Rudy Giuliani

Former mayor of New York, whose management of the aftermath of the September 11 attacks in 2001 won him worldwide praise. As Trump’s personal attorney he has been trying to find compromising material about the president’s enemies in Ukraine in what some have termed a “shadow” foreign policy. In a series of eccentric TV appearances he has claimed that the US state department asked him to get involved. Giuliani insists that he is fighting corruption on Trump’s behalf and has called himself a “hero”.

AP

Volodymyr Zelensky

5/22 Volodymyr Zelensky

The newly elected Ukrainian president - a former comic actor best known for playing a man who becomes president by accident - is seen frantically agreeing with Trump in the partial transcript of their July phone call released by the White House. With a Russian-backed insurgency in the east of his country, and the Crimea region seized by Vladimir Putin in 2014, Zelensky will have been eager to please his American counterpart, who had suspended vital military aid before their phone conversation. He says there was no pressure on him from Trump to do him the “favour” he was asked for. Zelensky appeared at an awkward press conference with Trump in New York during the United Nations general assembly, looking particularly uncomfortable when the American suggested he take part in talks with Putin.

AFP/Getty

Mike Pence

6/22 Mike Pence

The vice-president was not on the controversial July call to the Ukrainian president but did get a read-out later. However, Trump announced that Pence had had “one or two” phone conversations of a similar nature, dragging him into the crisis. Pence himself denies any knowledge of any wrongdoing and has insisted that there is no issue with Trump’s actions. It has been speculated that Trump involved Pence as an insurance policy - if both are removed from power the presidency would go to Democratic House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, something no Republican would allow.

AP

Rick Perry

7/22 Rick Perry

Trump reportedly told a meeting of Republicans that he made the controversial call to the Ukrainian president at the urging of his own energy secretary, Rick Perry, and that he didn’t even want to. The president apparently said that Perry wanted him to talk about liquefied natural gas - although there is no mention of it in the partial transcript of the phone call released by the White House. It is thought that Perry will step down from his role at the end of the year.

Getty

Joe Biden

8/22 Joe Biden

The former vice-president is one of the frontrunners to win the Democratic nomination, which would make him Trump’s opponent in the 2020 election. Trump says that Biden pressured Ukraine to sack a prosecutor who was investigating an energy company that Biden’s son Hunter was on the board of, refusing to release US aid until this was done. However, pressure to fire the prosecutor came on a wide front from western countries. It is also believed that the investigation into the company, Burisma, had long been dormant.

Reuters

Hunter Biden

9/22 Hunter Biden

Joe Biden’s son has been accused of corruption by the president because of his business dealings in Ukraine and China. However, Trump has yet to produce any evidence of corruption and Biden’s lawyer insists he has done nothing wrong.

AP

William Barr

10/22 William Barr

The attorney-general, who proved his loyalty to Trump with his handling of the Mueller report, was mentioned in the Ukraine call as someone president Volodymyr Zelensky should talk to about following up Trump’s preoccupations with the Biden’s and the Clinton emails. Nancy Pelosi has accused Barr of being part of a “cover-up of a cover-up”.

AP

Mike Pompeo

11/22 Mike Pompeo

The secretary of state initially implied he knew little about the Ukraine phone call - but it later emerged that he was listening in at the time. He has since suggested that asking foreign leaders for favours is simply how international politics works.

AFP via Getty

Nancy Pelosi

12/22 Nancy Pelosi

The Democratic Speaker of the House had long resisted calls from within her own party to back a formal impeachment process against the president, apparently fearing a backlash from voters. On September 24, amid reports of the Ukraine call and the day before the White House released a partial transcript of it, she relented and announced an inquiry, saying: “The president must be held accountable. No one is above the law.”

Getty

Adam Schiff

13/22 Adam Schiff

Democratic chairman of the House intelligence committee, one of the three committees leading the inquiry. He was criticized by Republicans for giving what he called a “parody” of the Ukraine phone call during a hearing, with Trump and others saying he had been pretending that his damning characterisation was a verbatim reading of the phone call. He has also been criticised for claiming that his committee had had no contact with the whistleblower, only for it to emerge that the intelligence agent had contacted a staff member on the committee for guidance before filing the complaint. The Washington Post awarded Schiff a “four Pinocchios” rating, its worst rating for a dishonest statement.

Reuters

Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman

14/22 Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman

Florida-based businessmen and Republican donors Lev Parnas (pictured with Rudy Giuliani) and Igor Fruman were arrested on suspicion of campaign finance violations at Dulles International Airport near Washington DC on 9 October. Separately the Associated Press has reported that they were both involved in efforts to replace the management of Ukraine's gas company, Naftogaz, with new bosses who would steer lucrative contracts towards companies controlled by Trump allies. There is no suggestion of any criminal activity in these efforts.

Reuters

Kurt Volker

15/22 Kurt Volker

The former US ambassador to NATO was appointed special envoy to Ukraine, and is thought to have played a role in linking Giuliani with Ukraine officials. He resigned just before giving evidence to Congress, which had subpoenaed him. After his testimony it emerged that he had apparently told Giuliani that he was being fed false information about the Bidens from Ukrainian officials.

Getty Images

Marie Yovanovitch

16/22 Marie Yovanovitch

A career diplomat who was appointed US ambassador to Ukraine towards the end of Barack Obama’s presidency. She was abruptly recalled from her post in May 2019 amid claims that she was not co-operating with Rudy Giuliani’s unorthodox activities in Ukraine. In the Ukraine phone call Trump refers to her as “the woman” and “bad news” and hints darkly at some sort of retribution, saying: “Well, she’s going to go through some things.” Yovanovitch told House investigators in October that she felt as though she were targeted by a false accusations from Giuliani and his associates, who allegedly viewed her as a threat to their political and financial interests. She also said that State Department officials had told her she did nothing wrong, and that her abrupt removal was not related to her performance. Trump had simply lost faith in her abilities.

AP

Gordon Sondland

17/22 Gordon Sondland

A Seattle hotelier who became US ambassador to the European Union after donating $1 million to Trump’s inauguration committee, despite having no diplomatic experience. According to the whistleblower, Sondland met Ukrainian politicians to help them “understand and respond to the differing messages they were receiving from official US channels on one hand and from Mr GIuliani on the other”. Sondland told House investigators during October 2019 testimony that he had been disappointed with Trump's decision to involve his personal lawyer in dealings with Kiev — and stated that the president refused counsel from his top diplomats, and demanded Volodymyr Zelensky satisfy his concerns about corruption. Those diplomats had told Trump to meet with Zelensky without preconditions, according to Sondland. His testimony is at odds with the testimony of some other foreign policy officials, however, who indicated that Sondland was a willing participant.

Reuters

George Kent

18/22 George Kent

A career diplomat, he was number two at the Ukraine embassy under Marie Yovanovitch. Kent testified before House investigators in October 2019 that he was cut out of Ukraine policymaking after a May meeting orchestrated by acting chief of staff Mick Mulvaney, and was told to "lay low". The deputy assistant secretary in the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs said that he though it was "wrong" that he was sidelines by Trump's inner circle. Following the May meeting, Kent said he was edged out by Gordon Sondland, Kurt Volker, and Rick Perry, who "declared themselves the three people now responsible for Ukraine policy", according to a politician who attended the closed door testimony.

AFP via Getty Images

Ulrich Brechbuhl

19/22 Ulrich Brechbuhl

An adviser to secretary of state Mike Pompeo, with whom he has run businesses. The two were also at West Point military academy together. Swiss-born Brechbuhl is said to handle “special diplomatic assignments”. Subpoenaed to give evidence to Congress in November.

US State Department

Philip Reeker

20/22 Philip Reeker

Philip Reeker, the acting assistant secretary of State, testified that he did not find out about a push by the Trump administration to force Ukraine to publicly announce an investigation into former vice president Joe Biden until the whistleblower complaint was made public. While he was asked about any quid pro quo in that regard, Reeker indicated he was in the dark and so could not provide further details. But, he did fill in details during his October 2019 testimony on the circumstances surrounding the firing of Marie Yovanovitch. Democrats described his testimony has providing further backup to other testimony they had heard.

AP

William Taylor

21/22 William Taylor

William Taylor, the top US diplomat to Ukraine, testified during an October 2019 hearing in the house that American aid to Ukraine was explicitly tied to the country's willingness to investigate Donald Trump's political rival. Taylor's testimony was explosive, and made him a key witness to the Trump administration's efforts to use the force of the American government to push a politically motivated investigation against Joe Biden. He said the efforts came through an "irregular, informal channel of US policy-making" led by Rudy Giuliani, Kurt Volker, Rick Perry, and Gordon Sondland.

AP

Alexander Vindman

22/22 Alexander Vindman

Lietenant colonel Alexander Vindman is a top Ukraine expert on the National Security Council, and a decorated Iraq war veteran. He planned to tell the House impeachment inquiry that he heard Donald Trump appeal to Ukraine's president to investigate his leading political rivals. Mr Vindman said he considered the request so damaging to American interests that he reported it to a superior — twice. He is the first person to testify before the House impeachment inquiry who actually listened in on the 25 July phone call, in which Trump urged Volodymyr Zelensky to start an investigation into Joe Biden.

Getty Images

Donald Trump

1/22 Donald Trump

Accused of abusing his office by pressing the Ukrainian president in a July phone call to help dig up dirt on Joe Biden, who may be his Democratic rival in the 2020 election. He also believes that Hillary Clinton’s deleted emails - a key factor in the 2016 election - may be in Ukraine, although it is not clear why.

Reuters

The Whistleblower

2/22 The Whistleblower

Believed to be a CIA agent who spent time at the White House, his complaint was largely based on second and third-hand accounts from worried White House staff. Although this is not unusual for such complaints, Trump and his supporters have seized on it to imply that his information is not reliable. Expected to give evidence to Congress voluntarily and in secret.

Getty

The Second Whistleblower

3/22 The Second Whistleblower

The lawyer for the first intelligence whistleblower is also representing a second whistleblower regarding the President's actions. Attorney Mark Zaid said that he and other lawyers on his team are now representing the second person, who is said to work in the intelligence community and has first-hand knowledge that supports claims made by the first whistleblower and has spoken to the intelligence community's inspector general. The second whistleblower has not yet filed their own complaint, but does not need to to be considered an official whistleblower.

Getty

Rudy Giuliani

4/22 Rudy Giuliani

Former mayor of New York, whose management of the aftermath of the September 11 attacks in 2001 won him worldwide praise. As Trump’s personal attorney he has been trying to find compromising material about the president’s enemies in Ukraine in what some have termed a “shadow” foreign policy. In a series of eccentric TV appearances he has claimed that the US state department asked him to get involved. Giuliani insists that he is fighting corruption on Trump’s behalf and has called himself a “hero”.

AP

Volodymyr Zelensky

5/22 Volodymyr Zelensky

The newly elected Ukrainian president - a former comic actor best known for playing a man who becomes president by accident - is seen frantically agreeing with Trump in the partial transcript of their July phone call released by the White House. With a Russian-backed insurgency in the east of his country, and the Crimea region seized by Vladimir Putin in 2014, Zelensky will have been eager to please his American counterpart, who had suspended vital military aid before their phone conversation. He says there was no pressure on him from Trump to do him the “favour” he was asked for. Zelensky appeared at an awkward press conference with Trump in New York during the United Nations general assembly, looking particularly uncomfortable when the American suggested he take part in talks with Putin.

AFP/Getty

Mike Pence

6/22 Mike Pence

The vice-president was not on the controversial July call to the Ukrainian president but did get a read-out later. However, Trump announced that Pence had had “one or two” phone conversations of a similar nature, dragging him into the crisis. Pence himself denies any knowledge of any wrongdoing and has insisted that there is no issue with Trump’s actions. It has been speculated that Trump involved Pence as an insurance policy - if both are removed from power the presidency would go to Democratic House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, something no Republican would allow.

AP

Rick Perry

7/22 Rick Perry

Trump reportedly told a meeting of Republicans that he made the controversial call to the Ukrainian president at the urging of his own energy secretary, Rick Perry, and that he didn’t even want to. The president apparently said that Perry wanted him to talk about liquefied natural gas - although there is no mention of it in the partial transcript of the phone call released by the White House. It is thought that Perry will step down from his role at the end of the year.

Getty

Joe Biden

8/22 Joe Biden

The former vice-president is one of the frontrunners to win the Democratic nomination, which would make him Trump’s opponent in the 2020 election. Trump says that Biden pressured Ukraine to sack a prosecutor who was investigating an energy company that Biden’s son Hunter was on the board of, refusing to release US aid until this was done. However, pressure to fire the prosecutor came on a wide front from western countries. It is also believed that the investigation into the company, Burisma, had long been dormant.

Reuters

Hunter Biden

9/22 Hunter Biden

Joe Biden’s son has been accused of corruption by the president because of his business dealings in Ukraine and China. However, Trump has yet to produce any evidence of corruption and Biden’s lawyer insists he has done nothing wrong.

AP

William Barr

10/22 William Barr

The attorney-general, who proved his loyalty to Trump with his handling of the Mueller report, was mentioned in the Ukraine call as someone president Volodymyr Zelensky should talk to about following up Trump’s preoccupations with the Biden’s and the Clinton emails. Nancy Pelosi has accused Barr of being part of a “cover-up of a cover-up”.

AP

Mike Pompeo

11/22 Mike Pompeo

The secretary of state initially implied he knew little about the Ukraine phone call - but it later emerged that he was listening in at the time. He has since suggested that asking foreign leaders for favours is simply how international politics works.

AFP via Getty

Nancy Pelosi

12/22 Nancy Pelosi

The Democratic Speaker of the House had long resisted calls from within her own party to back a formal impeachment process against the president, apparently fearing a backlash from voters. On September 24, amid reports of the Ukraine call and the day before the White House released a partial transcript of it, she relented and announced an inquiry, saying: “The president must be held accountable. No one is above the law.”

Getty

Adam Schiff

13/22 Adam Schiff

Democratic chairman of the House intelligence committee, one of the three committees leading the inquiry. He was criticized by Republicans for giving what he called a “parody” of the Ukraine phone call during a hearing, with Trump and others saying he had been pretending that his damning characterisation was a verbatim reading of the phone call. He has also been criticised for claiming that his committee had had no contact with the whistleblower, only for it to emerge that the intelligence agent had contacted a staff member on the committee for guidance before filing the complaint. The Washington Post awarded Schiff a “four Pinocchios” rating, its worst rating for a dishonest statement.

Reuters

Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman

14/22 Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman

Florida-based businessmen and Republican donors Lev Parnas (pictured with Rudy Giuliani) and Igor Fruman were arrested on suspicion of campaign finance violations at Dulles International Airport near Washington DC on 9 October. Separately the Associated Press has reported that they were both involved in efforts to replace the management of Ukraine's gas company, Naftogaz, with new bosses who would steer lucrative contracts towards companies controlled by Trump allies. There is no suggestion of any criminal activity in these efforts.

Reuters

Kurt Volker

15/22 Kurt Volker

The former US ambassador to NATO was appointed special envoy to Ukraine, and is thought to have played a role in linking Giuliani with Ukraine officials. He resigned just before giving evidence to Congress, which had subpoenaed him. After his testimony it emerged that he had apparently told Giuliani that he was being fed false information about the Bidens from Ukrainian officials.

Getty Images

Marie Yovanovitch

16/22 Marie Yovanovitch

A career diplomat who was appointed US ambassador to Ukraine towards the end of Barack Obama’s presidency. She was abruptly recalled from her post in May 2019 amid claims that she was not co-operating with Rudy Giuliani’s unorthodox activities in Ukraine. In the Ukraine phone call Trump refers to her as “the woman” and “bad news” and hints darkly at some sort of retribution, saying: “Well, she’s going to go through some things.” Yovanovitch told House investigators in October that she felt as though she were targeted by a false accusations from Giuliani and his associates, who allegedly viewed her as a threat to their political and financial interests. She also said that State Department officials had told her she did nothing wrong, and that her abrupt removal was not related to her performance. Trump had simply lost faith in her abilities.

AP

Gordon Sondland

17/22 Gordon Sondland

A Seattle hotelier who became US ambassador to the European Union after donating $1 million to Trump’s inauguration committee, despite having no diplomatic experience. According to the whistleblower, Sondland met Ukrainian politicians to help them “understand and respond to the differing messages they were receiving from official US channels on one hand and from Mr GIuliani on the other”. Sondland told House investigators during October 2019 testimony that he had been disappointed with Trump's decision to involve his personal lawyer in dealings with Kiev — and stated that the president refused counsel from his top diplomats, and demanded Volodymyr Zelensky satisfy his concerns about corruption. Those diplomats had told Trump to meet with Zelensky without preconditions, according to Sondland. His testimony is at odds with the testimony of some other foreign policy officials, however, who indicated that Sondland was a willing participant.

Reuters

George Kent

18/22 George Kent

A career diplomat, he was number two at the Ukraine embassy under Marie Yovanovitch. Kent testified before House investigators in October 2019 that he was cut out of Ukraine policymaking after a May meeting orchestrated by acting chief of staff Mick Mulvaney, and was told to "lay low". The deputy assistant secretary in the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs said that he though it was "wrong" that he was sidelines by Trump's inner circle. Following the May meeting, Kent said he was edged out by Gordon Sondland, Kurt Volker, and Rick Perry, who "declared themselves the three people now responsible for Ukraine policy", according to a politician who attended the closed door testimony.

AFP via Getty Images

Ulrich Brechbuhl

19/22 Ulrich Brechbuhl

An adviser to secretary of state Mike Pompeo, with whom he has run businesses. The two were also at West Point military academy together. Swiss-born Brechbuhl is said to handle “special diplomatic assignments”. Subpoenaed to give evidence to Congress in November.

US State Department

Philip Reeker

20/22 Philip Reeker

Philip Reeker, the acting assistant secretary of State, testified that he did not find out about a push by the Trump administration to force Ukraine to publicly announce an investigation into former vice president Joe Biden until the whistleblower complaint was made public. While he was asked about any quid pro quo in that regard, Reeker indicated he was in the dark and so could not provide further details. But, he did fill in details during his October 2019 testimony on the circumstances surrounding the firing of Marie Yovanovitch. Democrats described his testimony has providing further backup to other testimony they had heard.

AP

William Taylor

21/22 William Taylor

William Taylor, the top US diplomat to Ukraine, testified during an October 2019 hearing in the house that American aid to Ukraine was explicitly tied to the country's willingness to investigate Donald Trump's political rival. Taylor's testimony was explosive, and made him a key witness to the Trump administration's efforts to use the force of the American government to push a politically motivated investigation against Joe Biden. He said the efforts came through an "irregular, informal channel of US policy-making" led by Rudy Giuliani, Kurt Volker, Rick Perry, and Gordon Sondland.

AP

Alexander Vindman

22/22 Alexander Vindman

Lietenant colonel Alexander Vindman is a top Ukraine expert on the National Security Council, and a decorated Iraq war veteran. He planned to tell the House impeachment inquiry that he heard Donald Trump appeal to Ukraine's president to investigate his leading political rivals. Mr Vindman said he considered the request so damaging to American interests that he reported it to a superior — twice. He is the first person to testify before the House impeachment inquiry who actually listened in on the 25 July phone call, in which Trump urged Volodymyr Zelensky to start an investigation into Joe Biden.

Getty Images

He has a wide range of close associates — including former prosecutors and judges — who could have taken him on as a client.

But at least four prominent attorneys declined for various reasons, according to people familiar with the matter.

They included Mary Jo White, who also once led the US attorney’s office for the Southern District, as well as Theodore Wells Jr, a trial lawyer at Paul, Weiss, according to people familiar with those discussions.

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Another was Daniel Stein, a former senior prosecutor who recently held top posts in the Southern District, where he oversaw the prosecutions of public officials including Sheldon Silver, the former speaker of the New York State Assembly, and Dean Skelos, the State Senate majority leader.

Mr Stein, whose tenure and relationships in the Southern District would afford him credibility with prosecutors there, negotiated with Mr Giuliani for two weeks and seemed close to reaching an agreement.

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But the deal ultimately fizzled because of a conflict at Mr Stein’s firm, Mayer Brown, according to one person with knowledge of the matter.

Paul Shechtman, a partner at the law firm Bracewell and a former prosecutor who worked in federal and state courts in Manhattan, was approached roughly two weeks ago about representing Trump's lawyer, who is also the former mayor of New York. But the firm, where Mr Giuliani once worked, reportedly rejected the idea.

Big law firms are, for the most part, conservative institutions that often represent a wide range of clients with varying business interests, many of whom tend to shy away from controversy, regardless of their politics.

Mr Giuliani’s connection to Mr Trump, his unpredictability and his recent history of outbursts in his frequent television appearances could make him a challenging client.

Rudy Giuliani rants about 'idiot press' and calls Howard Kurtz 'pathetic'

Lawyers who are solo practitioners were concerned that Mr Giuliani, who is known to have difficulty delegating, would try to manage his own case, according to a person close to Mr Giuliani.

Mr Giuliani’s trouble in hiring a lawyer mirrored Mr Trump’s own difficulties attracting a top law firm to represent him as the probe by the special counsel, Robert Mueller, dragged into a second year.

That difficulty — and Trump’s desire for a more vocal representative — was how the president ended up hiring Mr Giuliani.

Mr Costello and Mr Giuliani’s relationship dates to their time in the US attorney’s office in Manhattan, where Mr Costello was Mr Giuliani’s intern.

Mr Costello, who was deputy chief of the office’s criminal division, now works for a Manhattan law firm, Davidoff Hutcher & Citron.

The two men stayed in touch. Mr Costello declined to comment on their work together.

Two other lawyers, Eric Creizman and Melissa Madrigal from the law firm Pierce Bainbridge, are joining Mr Giuliani’s team. Mr Creizman declined to comment.

Donald Trump says he doesn't know if Rudy Giuliani is still his attorney

Mr Costello and Mr Giuliani crossed paths last year at a critical juncture in the investigation of another Trump associate, Michael Cohen, who eventually pleaded guilty to helping arrange hush money payments to women who said they had affairs with Mr Trump.

The US president has denied the relationships.

Last year, before Mr Cohen pleaded guilty and decided to turn on Mr Trump, Mr Costello offered to contact Mr Giuliani on Mr Cohen’s behalf.

At the time, the US president had just hired Mr Giuliani as a personal lawyer.

Mr Costello ultimately had a falling out with Mr Cohen and never formally represented him.

Few details of the current criminal inquiry focused on Mr Giuliani have been revealed publicly, and he has not been accused of wrongdoing.

Read more

But the investigation could cover a broad range of his conduct, including his work with two associates and former Ukrainian prosecutors.

Together, the men tried to dig up dirt about former vice president Joe Biden, a candidate in the 2020 presidential election, and his son Hunter Biden, and increase pressure on other targets of Mr Trump and his allies, including the US ambassador to Ukraine.

The investigation into Mr Giuliani appears to have grown out of a 14-month inquiry that has already resulted in charges against the associates and two other men.

The associates, Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman, were indicted earlier this month on campaign finance violations, some of which were linked to work the two men did for Giuliani in Ukraine. They have pleaded not guilty.

The New York Times

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