The Irish Times

The Irish Times online. Latest news including sport, analysis, business, weather and more from the definitive brand of quality news in Ireland.

https://www.irishtimes.com/

Apartheid timeline: Key dates in the end of white rule in South Africa.

South Africa’s last white president, FW de Klerk, who negotiated the end of white minority rule and a peaceful transfer of power to a black-led government, died on Thursday aged 85.

Here is a timeline of key dates in the history of apartheid white rule in South Africa:

1948: Apartheid, the Afrikaans word for separateness, was launched as a political concept by the white National Party (NP) in the run-up to the 1948 general election. It won popular support from white voters who wanted to maintain their dominance over the black majority.

1950: The government adopted key laws underpinning apartheid rule. The four main racial groups had to live in separate areas, all children had to be registered by race at birth, and sex between whites and other races was outlawed.

1960: Sixty nine unarmed black protesters were killed by police during a protest at Sharpeville in the Transvaal. In the same year the government declared the African National Congress (ANC) and the hardline Pan-Africanist Congress illegal.

1961: South Africa became a republic and left the Commonwealth. The ANC, then operating underground, launched a guerrilla campaign.

1964: Nelson Mandela and seven others were sentenced to life imprisonment on Robben Island, off Cape Town, on charges of conspiracy and sabotage.

1984: President PW Botha cautiously moved to dismantle some apartheid laws, and announced the repeal of the ban on sex and marriage between whites and other races, following nationwide anti-apartheid rioting in townships.

1989: FW de Klerk replaced Botha as president.

1990: About 30 banned groups, including the ANC, were legalised. Nelson Mandela released from prison.

1991: Apartheid laws and racist restrictions were repealed and power-sharing talks started between the state and 16 anti-apartheid groups.

1993: De Klerk apologised for apartheid for the first time, and said he deeply regretted the loss of freedom and dignity inflicted on black people. In the same year Mandela and de Klerk were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

1994: South Africa held its first all-race election. The ANC won by a landslide and Mandela was inaugurated as the country’s first Black president.– Reuters

Chris Cuomo was carrying CNN's ratings: Coglianese

Chris Cuomo was carrying CNN's ratings: Coglianese

Radio host Vince Coglianese reveals what really drove CNN to suspend anchor Chris Cuomo on 'Tucker Carlson Tonight.' #FoxNews #TuckerCarlsonTonight Subscribe to Fox News! Watch more Fox News Video: Watch Fox News Channel Live: FOX News Channel (FN...

Sky News Breakfast: 'We don't know enough about Omicron - yet'.

Sky News Breakfast: 'We don't know enough about Omicron - yet'.

On Sky News Breakfast with Kay Burley on Wednesday, December 1: - the Health Secretary Sajid Javid tells Kay that there's still a lot of learn about the new Omicron variant of coronavirus; - but he said there was no need for people to change their...

Health Secretary on Omicron variant: We're on a 'national mission'.

Health Secretary on Omicron variant: We're on a 'national mission'.

The Health Secretary Sajid Javid says we still don't know enough about the new Omicron variant of COVID-19 which has arrived in the UK. So the government is rolling out a huge campaign to deliver booster vaccinations to all adults by the end of Ja...

San Francisco Police Department member tells Tucker they are fed up.

San Francisco Police Department member tells Tucker they are fed up.

San Francisco Police Department member Tracy McCray joins ‘Tucker Carlson Tonight’ to discuss the dozens of stores hit by mobs of looters. Subscribe to Fox News! Watch more Fox News Video: Watch Fox News Channel Live: FOX News Channel (FNC) is a 2...

El Salvador: Fighting climate change - Global Ideas.

El Salvador: Fighting climate change - Global Ideas.

Central America's smallest country, El Salvador, is being increasingly battered by the effects of climate change - by drought, floods, and violent storms. The small organization CESTA has long been fighting for more environmental protection in its...

Arsenal star Gabriel fights off thugs in baseball bat attack.

Arsenal star Gabriel fights off thugs in baseball bat attack.

ARSENAL star Gabriel fought off a baseball bat-wielding robber who attempted to steal his car from his garage. A pair of thieves followed the £27m centre-back and his friend home before demanding the footballer’s keys, phone and watch as he got ou...