Lawmakers voted 97-2 to attach the sanctions language to a bill sanctioning Iran over its ballistic missile program and sponsorship of terrorism. The measure includes language that would prevent the president from lifting the sanctions without congressional approval.
The vote on the Russia measure came after days of bipartisan negotiations. Democrats insisted the provision include language saying only Congress can lift the sanctions, even though Trump administration officials have said they do not intend to lift them.
The amendment would sanction Russia for a variety of misdeeds, including the nation's encroachment into Ukraine and aggressive actions in Syria, by codifying punishment put in place under the Obama administration. But the recent Russian cyberhacking into the Democratic National Committee is what primarily pushed Democrats and Republicans seek additional sanctions.
"It is time to respond to Russia's attack on American Democracy with strength, with resolve, with common purpose and with action," said Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman John McCain, R-Ariz.
Democrats had threatened to block the Iran sanctions bill unless lawmakers included an amendment to punish Russia.
The amendment includes new sanctions on "key sectors of Russia's economy," according to the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee, including mining, metals, shipping and railways.
The sanctions would also target "corrupt" Russian individuals, such as those perpetuating human rights abuses or supplying weapons to Syrian President Bashar Assad.
Following the vote, Ukrainian MP Anton Herashchenko, who was present in the Senate during the vote as part of a Ukrainian delegation, wrote on Facebook: "The decision will put further pressure of the civilized world around the aggressive intentions of Vladimir Putin to continue hybrid war against the peoples of Ukraine, Syria, and the entire world, and will tie hands to those who want to make separate agreements with Russia on seizing interests of Ukraine and other countries suffering from Putin's imperial ambitions."